Nanometrics at AGU 2019

Date

Nanometrics looks forward to another great year in San Francisco at the 2019 AGU annual meeting

Stop by booth #529 to see the latest developments in our seismic solutions

 


Minimize your deployment logistics with our suite of low power solutions

The Trillium Horizon has recently been updated to have an ultra-low power consumption of 230 mW. This second-generation Horizon maintains all of the performance and capabilities of the first generation while reducing the power consumption by over 50%.

 

When paired with our Pegasus Digital Recorder this provides a portable broadband station for under 450 mW.

Trillium Horizon Seismometer with Pegasus Digitial Recorder

 

 


 

AGU Wine Event December 11 at 3:00 PM

 


Poster Presentations

Next-Generation Seismic Monitoring for High-Precision Delineation of Fault Geometry and Stress; West Texas Case Study

Presented by: Emrah Yenier

Monday, December 9 13:40 - 18:00

S13E: Induced Seismicity in the United States and Canada III Posters

Abstract

Seismicity potentially induced through wastewater disposal, hydraulic fracture completion, or other industrial operations, has been a cause for increasing public concern over the last decade. Monitoring for this activity has focussed on the problems of location and characterization, often to a relatively rough degree of precision. Regulations typically spell out responses for operators should an event exceed a magnitude threshold within a specified distance of their facilities. While this type of monitoring is critical for ensuring injections be conducted effectively while minimizing potential damage from shaking and public alarm, it often leaves many unanswered questions in terms of the underlying processes.

 

Understanding these questions entails that we demand more out of the seismic networks, essentially upgrading the data products to a “next generation” level. The data from the network needs to be used to provide a detailed understanding of critical geological structures and geomechanics of the study area. This goal is facilitated through both a densification of hardware and a higher order of event processing. High-precision locations delivered through relative relocation methodologies delineate slipping fault structures, often resolving previously unknown features. Moment tensor inversion processing also helps reveal the orientations of faults and provides information on stress in the region. The resolution of these structures provides critical insight into understanding how a field is reacting.

 

We illustrate the application of this “next-generation” seismicity monitoring system to the Delaware Basin in West Texas, where we have deployed a network of 25 broadband seismometers complementing monitoring from TexNet and other networks. Despite being an exceptionally challenging recording environment, by aggregating all of these data we obtain a high-resolution catalog of earthquake hypocenters delineating a number of fault features. Inverting the stresses from the moment tensors of the highest-quality events shows a dominantly normal stress regime and tangibly resolves a rotation of axes transitioning across the basin. We illustrate both the logistical and processing requirements necessary for timely delivery of results highlighting the dynamics of seismicity in an active study area.

 

A Complete Solution Set for Autonomous Ocean Bottom Seismometry

Presented by: Bruce Townsend

Monday, December 9 13:40 - 18:00

OS13B: Advances in Seafloor Instrumentation II Posters

Abstract

Ocean Bottom Seismometry has more constraints than terrestrial seismometry due to the challenging environment, complex logistics and high costs associated with operating seismic stations on the seafloor. However, the scientific objectives of a station are the same: to reliably record high-quality ground motion signals with sufficient fidelity to discern phenomena of interest that manifest above the baseline background earth noise at any given site.

 

To better address the specific needs and challenges of ocean bottom seismology, Nanometrics in conjunction with Scripps Institute of Oceanography, has developed a comprehensive OBS solution called Triton that comprises a versatile but compact instrument platform, ultra-low power high-performance seismometers and datalogger, sophisticated battery management, and an end-to-end seamless workflow that spans the entire process from on-shore campaign design to shipboard operation and culminates with ready-to-use complete datasets.

Triton exploits recent SWaP (Size, Weight and Power) breakthroughs in seismometer and datalogger technology that promise a more than 50% power reduction and 40% size/weight reduction for broadband and very broadband sensors, and high precision low-power digitizing technology, which together offer very low noise OBS stations with extremely low power consumption. This next-generation seismometer technology is based on proven intermediate and very broadband sensors that have been deployed widely by Scripps and other oceanographic institutes globally.

Key benefits of the complete OBS ecosystem and end-to-end workflow include significantly extended deployment duration, the same sensor performance options for OBS as on land from geophones to the newest generation of ultra broadband seismometers, optimal operational cost resulting from greatly improved ease-of-use and low SWaP, and high outcome certainty due in part to integrated simple workflows designed specifically for the autonomous OBS use case. Ultra-fast harvesting of data produces a ready-to-use dataset including automatically generated StationXML response metadata and automatic time correction, and facilitates rapid recovery and redeployment of OBS stations.

 

 

Site-Specific Characterization of Earthquake Ground Motions: Papua New Guinea Case Study

Presented by: Emrah Yenier

Wednesday, December 11 13:40 - 18:00

S33E: Seismology Contributions: Earthquake Ground Motions and Engineering Seismology III Posters

Abstract

A seismic hazard analysis is being conducted for a site in Papua New Guinea which is located in a seismically-active region that experiences frequent large earthquakes generated by crustal and subduction sources. A suite of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) is developed for each source type (crustal, interface and in-slab) using the scaled-backbone approach. To this end, a ground-motion database consisting of events of 4.0<Mw<8.0 is compiled from available local and regional monitoring stations. Ground motions are classified based on the source type and converted to a common reference site condition. The site-corrected motions are compared against alternative GMPEs. Residual trends between observed and predicted amplitudes are examined to select a backbone model that represents the best estimate of the median ground motions for each source type. The backbone models are then adjusted to the median of the ground motions observed at the study site.

 

The epistemic uncertainty in median predictions is modeled using a logic-tree approach, where the distribution of potential median predictions is approximated by a lower, central and upper model. The central model is represented by the site-adjusted backbone model; it is scaled to define the lower and upper branches. The scaling factor is determined considering: (i) the standard deviation in median prediction of alternative GMPEs; and (ii) epistemic uncertainties recommended in other studies. The available data are insufficient to model aleatory variability with confidence. Therefore, the standard deviation of observed motions in data-rich regions is used for guidance. Two alternative aleatory variability models (ergodic and single-station sigma) adopted from other studies are recommended.

 

 

Acquisition Protocol - It’s Impact on Real-time Data Acquisition System Performance for EEW

Presented by: Andrew Moores

Thursday, December 12 08:00 - 12:20

S41G: Seismology Contributions: Advances in Instrumentation and Installation I Posters

Abstract

A fundamental element of real-time mission critical seismic monitoring networks is the data acquisition system, comprising the underlying protocol and the telemetry solution. Selection of the acquisition protocol can have significant impact on key network performance metrics, as well as operational cost and even station and data center design.

 

We examine the performance of various acquisition protocols using a set of standard measures of system performance. Primary measures include bandwidth utilization, data latency and robustness (data completeness). In addition, protocol functionality and features, including support for multiple data types and state-of-health, are assessed for system impact on options for station, telemetry, and data center design as well as the overall functionality of the system solution.

Real-world and system generated data are employed and key quantitative measures of system effectiveness are identified and used as the basis of the analysis. Results of the analysis show the real-world impact of low level aspects like protocol selection on system performance.

 

 

Seismology Experiment Infrastructure Designed Specifically for Portable Deployments

Presented by: Bruce Townsend

Thursday, December 12 08:00 - 12:20

S41G: Seismology Contributions: Advances in Instrumentation and Installation I Posters

Abstract

A primary objective of scientists is to spend time efficiently, and on actual science. However, the logistics and mechanics of collecting and curating seismic data sets for short-deployment networks can consume a significant amount of scientists’ time and resources.

 

The overhead of permanent station setup and management is amortized over years of data collection, but short-term seismic survey campaigns can incur high overhead proportional to the number and frequency of station deployments. Deploying stations and collecting, curating and interpreting data can be costly and time consuming, adding to the time to publish results, unless there is a focus on ease-of-use, efficiency and outcome certainty.

Scientists have conducted large-N campaigns by repurposing instruments, software and tools designed for other use cases (e.g. resource exploration, active source, permanent networks) and that were not designed to work together. This usually involves cumbersome, labor-intensive and error-prone workarounds to achieve an end-to-end workflow. This can include having to plan and manually configure individual instruments, convert data formats, manually build station metadata, manage suboptimal SWaP (size, weight and power), deal with complex logistics, and labor to curate a complete data set.

 

To meet the need for a comprehensive easy-to-use and efficient solution, Nanometrics has developed Pegasus, a complete ecosystem for portable nodal seismic station campaigns. Designed specifically for small to Large-N campaigns, Pegasus employs modern technologies working together in a seamless end-to-end workflow. Based around a modular ultra low SWaP digitizer and seismometer platform, it features simple station configuration through a mobile app, rapid deployment, ultra-fast harvesting of ready-to-use datasets including automatically generated StationXML, management of field notes and photos, and an optional cloud-based campaign planning and post-experiment audit service.

 

 

Reduce Power to Enable Denser Stations and More Reliable Science Observatory Outcomes

Presented by: Tim Parker

Thursday, December 12 08:00 - 12:20

S41G: Seismology Contributions: Advances in Instrumentation and Installation I Posters

Abstract

A prerequisite for remote geophysical observatories is reliable power. The provision of this power significantly drives the size and weight of deployed equipment. Based on recent examples of successful broadband seismic experiments we explore how purpose-built instrumentation and deployment techniques with further reductions in power will enable experiments to be deployed with more stations for the same operating budget, improved data quality, and higher reliability in both portable and permanent instrument arrays. In particular, recent technological advances that can reduce power consumption of broadband and very broadband seismometers by more than 50% without compromising performance are a key factor enabling optimized station power in the future. In combination with low power seismometers, new portable datalogger technology optimized for very low power are key to optimizing power for autonomous stations Furthermore, station complexity is reduced and in some cases power systems can change fundamentally, potentially allowing primary batteries to replace solar power in some use cases, with far-reaching implications for researchers and operators.

 

 

TRUAA Project: Upgrading Israel Seismic Network – Towards Earthquake Early Warning in Israel

A collaboration with the Geological Survey of Israel and Motorola Solutions Inc., Israel

Thursday, December 12 08:00 - 12:20

S41G: Seismology Contributions: Advances in Instrumentation and Installation I Posters

Abstract

Following the recommendations of an international committee (Allen et al., 2012), since October 2017 the Israeli Seismic Network (ISN) has been undergoing significant upgrades, with 120 stations being added or upgraded throughout the country and the addition of two new data centers. These enhancements are part of the TRUAA project, assigned to the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI) by the Israeli Government, to provide Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) capabilities for the state of Israel. The GSI contracted Nanometrics, supported by local contractor MSI, to deliver these upgrades through a turnkey project, including detailed design, equipment supply, and deployment of the network and two data centers.

 

The network was designed and tailored by the GSI, in collaboration with the Nanometrics project team, specifically to achieve efficient and robust EEW. Several significant features comprise the backbone of this network:

a) coverage - station distribution has high density (5-10 km spacing) along the two main fault systems, the Dead Sea Fault and the Carmel Fault System;

  1. b) instrumentation – high quality strong motion accelerometers and broadband seismometers with modern 3 channel and 6 channel dataloggers sampling at 200sps;
  2. c) low latency acquisition – data is encapsulated in small packets (< 1s), with primary routing via high speed, high capacity telemetry links (<1s latency);
  3. d) robustness – high level of redundancy throughout the system design:
  • Dual active-active redundant acquisition routes from each station, each utilizing multicast streaming over an IPSec VPN tunnel, via independent high bandwidth telemetry systems
  • Two active-active geographically separate data centers
  • Dual active-active redundant seismic processing tool chains within each data center, implemented in a high availability protected virtual environment

In addition, eight stations include co-located high quality GNSS receivers with medium-high stability short braced monuments, fully leveraging the dual route seismic data acquisition system.

At this time, both data centers and over 100 stations are operational. The system is currently being commissioned, with full early warning operation targeted for the end of 2019.

The high density, real-time continuous data has already proven to significantly enrich the seismic catalogue in Israel.